Comment on My review of Bad Pharma by Ben Goldacre by Rambleale.

Duane, you seem to have misunderstood the meaning of 95% confidence. It does not mean that the drug has benefited 95% of test subjects.

It simply means that you can statistically demonstrate that any positive effects found have a less than 5% chance of being due to random chance. Trials often report benefits to lower than 95% of test subjects the confidence limits are just about how sure of those effects they are.

i.e You could have a trial result that a drug reduces heart attacks risk by 32% to a confidence level of 95%. This would mean that the treated cohort had 32% fewer heart attacks than the control cohort and that due to the sample size etc there is a 95% probability that this benefit is really due to the treatment not random chance. It would not mean that 32% of the treated cohort had a lowered risk of heart attack.

Sorry to go on but I hope that the above is useful.

### Rambleale Also Commented

My review of Bad Pharma by Ben Goldacre

You are quite right I worded that badly.